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TDS on payments to Non-resident – simplified vide Form 15E

Obligation to TDS while paying to Non-residents:

Sec. 195 (1) of the Income Tax Act, 1961 mandates any person (whether or not a resident) who makes payment of interest or any other sum chargeable to tax in India to a non-resident (not being salaries), deduct taxes at the time of making payment or at the time of crediting the account of the payee, whichever is earlier. If the payer is a Government, PSU Bank or a PFI, they can TDS at the time of actual payment. In other words, every payer paying anything other than salaries to non resident, shall understand and ensure compliance with Sec. 195.

Quite simply, Sec. 195 obligates any payer to withhold taxes (TDS) from payments to non-residents, but while doing so, it puts the payer in a Pandora’s box. The payer has to decide the nature of income, the status of tax residency of the payee, applicable tax rate for TDS by considering TDS Rates as per Indian Tax Law OR beneficial/lower rates if any prescribed in DTAA between India and country of residence. 15CA – self declaration & 15CB – CA Certificate may help the payee, however, it doesn’t put him outside Pandora’s box, as the Assessing Officer while assessing those payment transactions can always take a contrary view and once again ensure that the payee remains inside the Pandora’s box.

Whereas, Sec. 195 (2) & (7) permitted the payer to take the transaction to the Assessing Officer to have a clarity on the subject i.e. to decide the amounts taxable, the TDS rates and or lower nil rates. However, practically getting such clear orders from tax office was mostly a relationship exercise and was not possible for a corporate or a consultant to so secure it easily.

New Form 15E can ease payer’s TDS compliance of while paying to Non-residents:

Finally, w.e.f. 01st Apr 2021, to the let the payer live outside Pandora’s box, CBDT has used it powers u/s 195 r/w 295 and introduced Rule 29BA – Application for grant of certificate for determination of appropriate proportion of sum (other than Salary), payable to non-resident, chargeable in case of the recipients. An E Form 15E is prescribed and introduced u/r 29BA to facilitate payee – tax payers.

The payer can submit information of payee, it’s residential status, as well as details of transaction in Form 15E for the Assessing Officer to decide and clarify a. The amount taxable out of the total amount being paid to non-resident by the payer and b. The rate of TDS at which the TDS shall be made. Payer shall note that the procedure is optional, payer can always apply his own mind on tax laws or that of his CA, however, shall make sure that a higher TDS is made and complied with.

In addition to the detailed nature of the transactions, the Form 15E also requires the payer to inform their own conclusions about taxability of the transaction in India as per Indian Income Tax Act and also w.r.t. any applicable DTAA w.r.t. nature of income being business income, capital gain, royalties, fees for technical services, interest or any other payments.

What happens after one files 15E: Taxman’s job

Form 15E can be e-filed using DSC / other verification modes. The Assessing Officer shall examine chargeability to tax of the sum being paid by the payer to the payee, if so chargeable, he shall also determine the portion of such sum, which is so chargeable to tax and after satisfaction may issue a certificate determining the sum so chargeable to tax u/s 195 for applying TDS.

While examining the application, the Assessing Officer shall also take into consideration, (i) tax payable on estimated income of the previous year relevant to the assessment year; (ii) tax payable on the assessed or returned or estimated income, as the case may be, of preceding four previous years; (iii) existing liability under the Income-tax Act, 1961(43 of 1961) and Wealth-tax Act, 1957; (iv) advance tax payment, tax deducted at source and tax collected at source for the assessment year relevant to the previous year till the date of making application under sub-rule (1). This is a warning for defaulting tax payers, who are payees, to not to opt for 15E.

The certificate shall be valid only for the payment to non-resident named therein and for such period of the previous year as may be specified in the certificate, unless it is cancelled by the Assessing Officer at any time before the expiry of the specified period. An application for a fresh certificate may be made, if the assesses so desires, after the expiry of
the period of validity of the earlier certificate or within three months before the expiry thereof.

The pdf form Form 15E along with parent notification can be found on official website of Income Tax Department and also on

CA. Sanjay Joshi (Author)


Quarterly Return Monthly Payment Scheme GST India

Circular no. 143/13/2020-GST, w.e.f. 01.01.2021 permits SMEs (i.e. a Registered Tax Payer, say an RTP) can opt monthly GST payment & quarterly compliances, i.e. QRMP (Quarterly Return Monthly Payment).

Eligibility Criteria: Any RTP having TO <= 5 Cr in the previous F.Y. & required to file GSTR-3B can opt for QRMP. Once the TO > 5 Cr, an RTP shall follow regular compliances and is ineligible for QRMP Scheme from next quarter.

QRMP Default Migration: For Q42021 (Jan-Mar21), RTP who filed GSTR-3B for Oct-20 by 30th Nov 2020, shall be automatically migrated to QRMP:

S.N.RTP having aggregate turnoverDefault Option
1<= ₹ 1.5 Cr & filed GSTR-1 on MONTHLY basis in FY2021QR
2<= ₹ 1.5 Cr & filed GSTR-1 on QUARTERLY basis in FY2021MR
3> ₹ 1.5 Cr and <= ₹ 5 Cr in the FY1920QR
  • RTP can freely change the option as above, if they so desire from 05-12-2020 to 31-01-2021.

QRMP Enrollment: RTP can opt in for any quarter, after ensuring compliances for previous quarter, from 1st day of 2nd month of previous quarter to last day of 1st month of current quarter. Once opted, it continues unless it is opted out.

Compliances under QRMP Scheme:

  • Pay Monthly GST: An RTP shall pay GST monthly for first 2 month of the quarter, using – Select “Monthly Payment for Quarterly Taxpayer” as reason for generating challan. Taxpayer has option to work out tax payable in cash as:
    1. Self-Assessment Method: GST on Outward Supplies less eligible ITC OR.
    2. Fixed Sum Method – A pre-filled challan will be generated for an amount equal to –
      • 35% of cash tax paid in previous quarter – where GSTR1 was filed quarterly OR
      • 100% of cash tax paid in the last month of previous quarter – where GSTR1 was filed monthly.
    3. Zero Cash Payment: RTP shall not pay in cash any amount, if the balance in Electronic cash/credit Ledger is adequate for taxes due For the 1st month of quarter or For the cumulative of 1st and 2nd month, as the case may be OR Where there is NO tax liability under self-assessment method.
    4. Refund for fixed amount deposited for first 2 months can be claimed only after filing of GSTR-3B for the said quarter. This deposit cannot be used for any other purpose.
    5. Interest @ Applicable rates is payable for delay in paying fixed amount/self-assessed GST or for delaying quarterly 3B.
  • File GSTR-1:
    • File Quarterly GSTR-1, GSTR-2B will reflect such invoices in the last month of quarter to the concerned recipient. OR
    • Invoice Furnishing Facility – IFF Instead of filing quarterly GSTR1, An RTP can optionally upload outward supply invoices for 1st and 2nd months of a quarter, between 1st to 13th day of next month, if value of such outward supplies for each month doesn’t exceed ₹ 50 lakhs for each month. IFF uploaded invoices will be reflected in GSTR-2A&2B of concerned month to recipient.
  • File GSTR-3B: File Quarterly 3B on or before 22nd / 24th day of month next Qtr. The amount so deposited in the first two months shall be debited solely to offset the liability. GSTR-3B is to be mandatorily filed even for the quarter for which GSTIN is cancelled.
  • How to get it done on GSTIN Portal

• The option to avail this scheme can be availed GSTIN wise by a taxpayer (if eligible).
• Taxpayer can login to the GST portal and then navigate to Services > Returns > Opt-in for
Quarterly Return option to opt in or opt out of the QRMP scheme.
• Click here for details –
• Click here for UM & FAQ –


FCA Sanjay Joshi and Furkan Dhobi

GST Composition Scheme for Service Providers

For ease of Small Taxpayer under GST, Government introduced a Composition
Scheme u/s 10 of The CGST Act, but that scheme wasn’t for Service Provider Taxpayer. Therefore, Government via Notification No.: 2/2019, introduced another Composition
Scheme designed for Service Provider Taxpayer. The scheme is

Eligibility Criteria: Who can apply?

 Supplies are made by Registered Person whose Aggregate Turnover (CalculateaCalculate u/s 2(6) of The Act), in Preceding Financial Year was
Rs. 50 Lakhs or below.

 Supply is not eligible to pay tax u/s 10 of The CGST Act.

Composite Tax Rate & Levy in Current Year:

 GST Rate 6% (i.e. CGST 3% and SGST 3%) on First Supply of Goods or
Services or Both up to an Aggregate Turnover of Rs. 50 Lakhs made on or
after the first April in any Financial Year, by a Registered Person.

“First Supply of Goods & Services or Both” shall, include the Supplies from the
First Day of April of a financial year to the date from which he becomes liable for
registration under the said Act; but for the purpose of determination of tax
payable under this notification shall not include the supplies from the first day of
April of a financial year to the date from which he becomes liable for registration
under the Act, i.e. first 20 lakh.

Analysis of the Notification:

 Taxpayer who failed to opt Composition Scheme u/s 10, can also opt for this Composition Scheme under N/N. 2/2019.

 Supplier of Service (Service Provider) can also supply goods without any prescribed limit, though they will be taxed @6%.

 Any Service Provider can opt for Composition Scheme up to Turnover of Rs. 50 Lakhs, with certain conditions stated.

 Composition Taxpayer shall mention the text on Bill of Supply (Invoice) “Taxable Person Paying Tax in Terms of N/N 2/2019”.

 Service provided in any way not engage in supply of Ice-Cream, Pan Masala, Aerated Water, and Tobacco & Tobacco Substitute.

 After crossing the limit of 1
st Supply of Rs. 50 Lakhs the
person automatically get converted in Normal Scheme.

 All person registered in the same PAN shall pay taxes at same rate as per the notification.

Other conditions to be complied with:

 In Current Year, the Taxpayer should not engaged in Supply of Goods which are Non Taxable under GST Act.

 In Current Year, the Taxpayer shall not make an Inter State Outward Supply of Goods.

 In Current Year, the Taxpayer shall not engage in Supply of Goods
through an E-Commerce Operator.

 Taxpayer Person Opting Composition Scheme shall not Collect Tax on
Outward Supplies.

 Taxpayer Person Opting Composition Scheme will not be eligible to Claim
Input Tax Credit or to pass on ITC.

 Applicable for all Businesses having Registrations under same PAN of the
Conditions required to opt for Composition Scheme.

Restrictions as per Composition Rules:

 Taxpayer is neither a Casual Taxable Person nor a Non-Resident Taxable
Person.  Goods held in Stock as on Appointed Date are not purchased:

  1. In course of Interstate Trade or Commerce
  2. Imported from place outside India
  3. From his Agent or Principal outside State, where the option is exercised.
  4. From Unregistered Person under RCM basis, provided he can opt the
    scheme on payment of Tax on RCM Basis.

Returns – Compliance:

 As per N/N: 21/2019, A Registered Person opting N/N: 2/2019 shall furnish a quatrrly
Statement or part thereof containing tax payment in CMP-08 till 18th of Month succeeding the quarter and a single return for every financial year or part thereof in GSTR-4 or before 30th April of next Financial Year.

Author: Parth Joshi

New Optional Scheme of Taxation for Individual & HUF

Government should have ideally introduced a Direct Tax Code, which was argued to be quite simple. The process of becoming simple is unfortunately very very difficult and in the process of being simple, it ultimately most of the time becomes complex. The complexity is primarily because the taxman wants more tax money by managing less tax payers, whereas tax payers want less tax out go, no tax questions, no restrictions on usage or investment of their money and at the same time robust government spending on infrastructure & social benefits. This mismatch of goals and roles results into complex tax solutions which helps tax professionals charge premium for their services.

Before 2020, government gave simplified tax rates to manufacturing companies, start-up companies and even to SMEs and now, it brought a new optional scheme of taxation introduced w.e.f. FY 2020-21 for Individuals & HUF tax payers. Article attempts to summarize the scheme vs its benefits and outgoes.

Benefits under the scheme:

Slab (INR in Lakh) New
1 Upto 5 Lakh 0 0 0
2 > 5 to 7.5 37500 62500 -25000
3 > 7.5 to 10 75000 112500 -37500
4 > 10 to 12.5 125000 187500 -62500
5 > 12.5 to 15 187500 262500 -75000
1. Tax is calculated for highest amount in the slab as per the slab rate.
2. For income falling between the slab, a proportionate figure can be taken for decision making.


Text of the Scheme:

Sec. Text of Law




Slab Rate

Individual & HUF are given an option from AY2122 (FY2021).

An optional tax slab on Total Income.

Sr. No. Slab (INR in Lakh) Rate Tax INR
1 Upto 2.5 0 0
2 > 2.5 to 5 5% 12500
3 > 5 to 7.5 10% 25000
4 > 7.5 to 10 15% 37500
5 > 10 to 12.5 20% 50000
6 > 12.5 to 15 25% 62500
Total Flat Tax upto <= 15 Lakh 187500
7 > 15 30%

(2) (i)





Total income for 115BAC (1) shall be calculated without taking benefit of the prescribed exemptions and deductions.

Following exemptions and deductions shall not be available if the option is exercised:

Sec. Benefit
10(5) Leave Travel Concession (LTC)
10(13) House Rent Allowance (HRA)
10(14) Exempt allowances to the extent of actual expenditure
10(17) Daily allowances income of MP, MLA or other such office bearers
10(32) Rs. 1,500 if minor’s income is clubbed u/s 64(1A)
10AA Prescribed % of Profits and Gains from Business or Profession from a Unit in SEZ
24(b) Interest on loan for self occupied home
(32)(iia) Additional depreciation for plant and machinery for specified units
32AD Additional Depreciation for Investment in new plant or machinery in notified backward areas in certain States
33AB Tea development account, coffee development account and rubber development account.
35(1)(ii) 150% of any sum paid to a research association having objects of scientific research or to a university, college or other institution to be used for scientific research :
35(1)(iia) any sum paid to company to be used by it for scientific research
35(1)(iii) any sum paid to a research association which has as its object the undertaking of research in social science or statistical research or to a university, college or other institution to be used for research in social science or statistical research
35(2AA) 150% of sum paid to a National Laboratory or a University or an Indian Institute of Technology or a specified person with a specific direction that the said sum shall be used for scientific research undertaken under a programme approved in this behalf by the prescribed authority
35AD 100% Capex for specified businesses
35CCC Expenditure on agricultural extension project.
57(iia) 33.33% of family pension income or fifteen thousand rupees, whichever is less.
Chapter VI-A All types of deductions except 80CCD & 80JJAA & 80LA(1A)
80CCD Deduction in respect of contribution to pension scheme of Central Government.
80JJAA Deduction in respect of employment of new employees.
80LA(1A) A unit in International Financial Services Centre

Note that 80CCD, 80JJAA & 80LA(1A) are still available.

One shall also exclude standard deduction u/s 16 of Rs. 50,000/-.


(2) (ii) (a)



Of losses

Further, Total Income at 115BAC (1) shall be calculated without taking set off for following

  • Carried forward losses of earlier years, if it so arises as a result of taking any deductions referred to in 115BAC (2) (i)
  • Carried forward depreciation of earlier years, if it so arises as a result of taking deductions referred to in 115BAC (2) (i)

(2) (ii) (b)



Of losses

Further, Total Income at 115BAC (1) shall be calculated without taking set off for following

  • Losses from property with any other head of income.

Therefore, for FY2021, if one opts for the scheme, loss under the head house property (including rent properties) shall not be allowed to be set off while calculating total income, to which new slab rate will apply. The loss under the house property from rented property arises only in case the interest on borrowed loan exceeds 70% of rent received.


(2) (iii)

Further, Total Income at 115BAC (1) shall be calculated after taking benefit of Sec. 32 except 32(1) (iia) for which a method will be prescribed.


(2) (iv)

Further, Total Income at 115BAC (1) shall be calculated without any exemption or deduction for allowances or perquisite, by whatever name called, provided under any other law for the time being in force.



The loss and depreciation referred to in clause (ii) of sub-section (2) shall be deemed to have been given full effect to and no further deduction for such loss or depreciation shall be allowed for any subsequent year.

Provided that where there is a depreciation allowance in respect of a block of assets which has not been given full effect to prior to the assessment year beginning on the 1st day of April, 2021, corresponding adjustment shall be made to the written down value of such block of assets as on the 1st day of April, 2020 in the prescribed manner, if the option under sub-section (5) is exercised for a previous year relevant to the assessment year beginning on the 1st day of April, 2021.

Therefore, loss and depreciation shall be deemed to have granted and so the benefit from out of that becomes zero, for the year for which option is exercised.



Further, Total Income at 115BAC (1) shall be calculated after taking benefit of deduction u/s 80LA (1A) i.r.t. units in the International Financial Services Centre

How to exercise the option:


Status Deadline Concern


(5) (i)

Income only from business or profession Before the due date of filing the ITR. Option once exercised, it continues forever. There is no way back, it’s a one-time window

(5) (ii)

Income from sources other than business or profession Before the due date of filing the ITR. Option can be exercised every year

(5) (i)

Income from business or profession as well as other sources Before the due date of filing the ITR.

Option once exercised continues to apply to future years, until it is withdrawn for one year. Withdrawal is allowed Once in a life time only.

Provided that if a person who exercised such option, ceases to have income from business or profession, can again claim the option every year after he so ceases said income.

The time is tough for everyone around. COVID19 is adding new challenges on personal front, employment front and even on finances and disposal income front. It is a call to be taken, as one gets liquidity by paying 25,000 to 75,000 extra tax and remain free to spend or invest his salary / income wherever one wants to, as far as one’s income is upto 15 lakh or a less, by option for new tax scheme.

The key to decide is whether you want to get into a lock in and do forced investments for tax planning and remain averse or whether you want to take active interest in deciding what kind of investments you want to make for your own goals for return, by taking risk. Choice is yours.

Income Tax department has themselves made an excellent software for ready comparsion which is the most user friendly one and can be four at

CA. Sanjay Joshi


Welcome to India – Non Residents

On one side GOI introduced NRC and on another side FM introduced new rules to determine tax residency for Indian Income Tax, applicable from 01.04.2021, i.e. for Financial Year 2020-21, the COVID-19 year in India.

The law that was introduced in budget was draconial and is simplied, but what is simplied can only be understood and grasped when the time comes to comply it. Let’s understand a simple most summary of the new tax residency rules for India.

The one pager is

Sec. An Individual who is a Condition i.r.t.
Stay in India
Income subject to Indian Tax
6(1)(a) Any Individual >= 182 Days ROR Global
6(1)(c) Any Individual (i) >= 60 Days AND ROR
(ii) >= 365 days in 4 PY
R/w Exp (a)
COI & a member of an Indian Crew (for the year of leaving India) >= 182 Days ROR
R/w Exp (a)
COI & leaving India for an employment (for the year of leaving India) >= 182 Days ROR
R/w Exp (b)
R/w 155C
A COI who is an Investor having only investment income & LTCG from specified capital assets who is on a visit to India, having total income < 15 Lakh >= 182 Days ROR
R/w Exp (b)
R/w 155C
A POI who is an Investor having only investment income & LTCG from specified capital assets who is on a visit to India < 15 Lakh >= 182 Days ROR
6(1A) a. COI having total income >= 15 Lakh AND
b. Total income excludes foreign source income AND
c. Such COI is not liable to tax in any other country
Please note that Sec. 6(1A) dealing with deemed residency is for Indian Citizenship and is not applicable to Foreign Citizens, even though they hold POI.

6(6)(a) An Individual who is a Non Resident in 9 out of 10 preceding previous years OR NIL RBNOR
An Individual who has stayed in 7 preceding previous years for

<= 729


6(6)(b) A manager of an HUF Family who is a Non Resident in 9 out of 10 preceding previous years OR NA RBNOR
A manager of an HUF Family who has stayed in 7 preceding previous years for

<= 729


R/w 6(1)(c)
R/w Exp (b)
R/w 155C

a. COI/POI having total income >= 15 Lakh AND
b. Total income excludes foreign source income AND
c. Such COI/POI is not liable to tax in any other country

Provided one doesn’t fall under 6(1)(c), i.e. stay in India in PY >=60 days & >=365 days in 4 immediate PY

>= 121

Days but
< 182


(Upto FY1920, they were treated as NR)
All Together CIO having Total Income (excluding Foreing Source Income ) > 15 Lakh AND
who is not liable to tax in any other country
CIO having Total Income (excluding Foreing Source Income ) <= 15 Lakh AND
who is not liable to tax in any other country
CIO/POI having Total Income (excluding Foreing Source Income )> 15 Lakh <= 182 Days NR
CIO/POI having Total Income (excluding Foreing Source Income )> 15 Lakh <= 120 Days NR
Foreign Citizen who is not a POI <= 182 Days NR

Notes to above table:

Stay is to be calculated for the year for which, residency status is being determined.
The day of entry and the date of exist, both are to be included.
A person shall be deemed to be of Indian origin if he, or either of his parents or any of his grand-parents, was born in undivided India;
The new residency law is effective from 01.04.2021 i.e. from Previous/Financial Year 202021
Please note that Residency Rules are amended only for COI or POI and not for Foreign Citizens (not being POI)
RBNOR stands for Resident but Not Ordinary Resident and NR stands for Resident and ROR stands for Resident and Ordinary Resident.
1. Global Income refers to Indian Income (Sr. No. 1 to 4), Indian Source Income (Sr. No. 5 & 6) and Foreign Source Income (Sr. No. 7). 2. Indian Income refers to Indian Income (Sr. No. 1 to 4), Indian Source Income (Sr. No. 5 & 6)
Is not taxed in any other country means is not liable to tax in any other country or territory by reason of his domicile or residence or any other criteria of similar nature. The said text of law requires expert advice on international tax law, double tax avoidance treaty between Indian and the country of residence as well as decision making with regard to tie breaker rulers of the treaty to conclude tax residency in dual tax residency.


Author produces a smart summary that can be referred for tax vs tax residency.

Summary of Tax Impact vs Tax Residency
Say Type of Income ROR RBNOR NR
Income received in India Tax in India0
@ Slab Rates
Income deemed to be received in India
Income accrues or arises in India
Income is deemed to accrues or arise in India
Indian Source Income Income accrues or arises outside India from business controlled in India Tax in India
@ Slab Rates



Income accrues or arises outside India from profession set up in India
Foreign Source Income Any other Income accrues or arises outside India (Practically it covers any income earned anywhere in the globe) Tax in India
@ Slab Rates



One may note that tax residency for Non Residents who are known to frequently come to India for marriage, for family get to gether, for business and even for tours or profession, it is time for them that they may have to plan each year well in advance for their personal and money making or money spending activities so that they can truely comply with Indian Tax Law. Indian Citizenship now comes with a cost.

The article is for bare understanding of the subject, reader is advised to take professional advise before making conclusions. Author welcomes your query at


CA. Sanjay Joshi

Unregulated Deposit Schemes India (URDS)

Humanity is facing terror attacks and we all understand that someone is financing such attacks for know or unknown motives. Money is very very powerful and human history confirms that countries, economies and power full human beings have behaved inhuman – immorally when it came to earn more or spend less money. Indian Government has already introduced measures like Benami Property Law, Income Tax on Black Money, Amended Companies Act dealing banning Deposits from non related members or directors, however, none of that actually impacted financing arrangements in India, as very big businesses are owned and operated as proprietorship, partnership firms, LLPs and associations, etc.

On the other-side, such smaller entities have been granted series of ease of doing measures like no GST registration for turnover up-to 20 lakh (now 40 lakh w.e.f. 01.04.2019), no tax audits for turnover up-to 1 Cr (Rs. 50 lakh for professionals), labour law relaxations, etc etc. Such entities were easily used as a means to accept money deposits (loans / advances) and route it for business or personal finances, whereas, the banking law and RBI law, makes it very clear since it’s inception that only banks and licence holding non banking finance companies can carry on the business of banking (accepting loans / deposits for interest etc), i.e. other’s were clearly banned to deal in money except taken for personal purpose from relatives and friends.

The above was a broad structure, but there was no single law or code that dealt with deposits taken by non corporate entities that are neither companies nor NBFCs. On 21st Feb 2019, Government of India, vide notification in official gazetee (Ref No Reg No. DL – (N) – 04/0007/2003-19), notified THE BANNING OF UNREGULATED DEPOSIT SCHEMES ORDINANCE, 2019, NO. 7 OF 2019, (referred to as BURDs). The ordinance banned all unregulated deposit schemes outstanding and on-going as on 21.02.2019 and there after and confirms all regulated deposit schemes. Later, on 31st July 2019, Government of India, vide notification in official gazetee (Ref No Reg No. DL—(N)04/0007/2003-19),  made it a law. The serious outcomes and issues of the law are discussed in thi article.

The article aims to summarize the provisions of the law as RDS (Regulated Deposit Schemes) and URDS (Unregulated Deposit Schemes or say BURDs);

a. What is an Unregulated Deposit Scheme:

Sec. 2(17) of BURDS defines URDS means a scheme or arrangement under which deposits are accepted or solicited by any deposit taker by way of business and which is not a regulated deposit scheme, as per BURDSO.

First Schedule of BURDSO lists RDS as i.e. those deposit schemes governed under laws of SEBI, RBI, IRDA, State or Union Territory Government, NHB, PFRDA, EPFO, CRMSCS, MCA and any other scheme or arrangement registered with any regulatory body in India constitute or established under a statute. Central Government has retained powers to add to such regulated deposit scheme (RDS).

The preamble of the law, reads as “An Act to provide for a comprehensive mechanism to ban the unregulated deposit schemes, other than deposits taken in the ordinary course of business, and to protect the interest of depositors and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Use of the word, other than deposits taken in the ordinary course of business, has raised serious concerns about the very purpose of the law.

Therefore, any scheme of deposit which is not an RDS is now banned as URDS.

b. Who are banned to deal in URDS as a deposit taker or depositor?

Sec. 2 (5) of BURDSO defines a Depositor as any person who makes a deposit;

Sec. 2 (6) of BURDSO defines a Deposit Taker as an individual, group of individuals, a proprietorship concern, a registered or an unregistered partnership firm, an LLP, A Co, an AOP, a trust, a co-operative or multi-state co-operative society or any other arrangement of whatsoever nature.

Therefore, the above makes it clear that any arrangement between two parties (being any person) in the nature of deposit if it is not an RDS, becomes URDS and is so banned with immediate effect i.e. onward 21.02.2019.

c. What is deposit for the purpose of BURDSO to be regarded as either RDS or URDS?

Sec. 2 (4) of BURDSO means any amount of money received by way of an advance or loan or in any other form, by any deposit taker with a promise to return whether after a specified period or otherwise, either in cash or in kind or in the form of a specified service, with or without any benefit in the form of interest, bonus, profit or in any other form and gives a excludes;

  • loans from banks, co-operative banks, foreign,
  • loans or financial assistance from PFI or NBFCs or RFI or Insurance Companies
  • amounts received from an appropriate government or amounts received from any other source wherein repayment is guaranteed by an appropriate government
  • amount received from a statutory authority set up under central or state laws
  • amount received from sources approved and in accordance with FEMA
  • capital contributions from partners to firm or LLP
  • amounts received by an individual as loan from relatives (therefore, personal reason loans taken by individuals from relatives are not deposits – URDS and are not banned, whereas other deposits are banned even for individuals) 
  • amounts received by any firm by way of loan from the relatives of any of its partners
  • (credit period) amounts received as credit by a buyer from a seller on sale of any movable or immovable property
  • amounts received by an registered ARC under SRFAESIA
  • deposits made u/s 34 or amounts accepted by a political party u/s 29B of Representation of People Act, 1951
  • any periodic payment made by the members of the self-help groups operating within such ceilings as may be prescribed by State or Union Territory Government
  • any other amount collected for such purpose and within such ceilings as may be prescribed by State Government
  • any amount received in the course of, or for the purpose of, business and bearing a genuine connection to such business including –
    1. payment, advance or part payment for supply of goods or services and which is so repayable if goods or services are not so supplied
    2. advance received i.r.t. an immovable property under an agreement or arrangement subject to a condition that it is to be adjusted against such immovable property as per the terms of such agreement or arrangement (in other words, booking advance money paid by customers to builders are not deposits if they are backed by an agreement to sale / bannakhat, which is otherwise also required now due to RERA and other booking advance money are now deposits and hence banned)
    3. security deposit or alike as deposit for the performance of the contract of supply of goods or services, i.e. performance deposit money
    4. any advance under the long-term projects for supply of capital goods except i.r.t. immovable properties
    5. Provided that if any amounts referred at Sr. No 1 to 4 above, becomes refundable, it shall be so refunded within 15 days and otherwise, such amounts from the said 16th day becomes a URDS and is so banned.
    6. Provided further that if any such amounts become refundable, due to the deposit taker not obtaining required approvals under applicable law, it there and then becomes a URDS and is so banned.

Sec. 41 The provisions of this Act shall not apply to deposits taken in the ordinary course of business. Here comes the blow. How to interpret a deposit and that too which is taken in the ordinary course of business. Does that mean a deposit taken by a a. telecom service provider to give us a post paid telephone connection and or b. say a deposit taken by a government organization being a security deposit from it’s registered vendor and or c. say a deposit taken by builder as a loan for funding its building construction business, i surely believe it covers a and b, but not the c. One has to read the law in totality. Though Sec. 41 permits taking of deposits if they are to so taken in ordinary course of business, the very said law defines exhaustively the term “deposit” which is meant to include even advances and loans and also the advances taken for the immovable properties if they are booking amounts and also confirms that deposit doesn’t include deposits / loans from relatives if taken by individuals and or firms. 

There has been serious of doubts and questions, however, Author has very clear views on the a BURDS.

Author’s simple understanding of the BURDSO is deposits or advances or loans taken by any businesses (even if taken by individual, if it is taken for business purpose, provided the business is not of lending money) if such amounts are in the course of genuine connection with such business, they are not URDS and are not so banned. Therefore, individuals taking deposits, advances or loans and further lending it to business entities on interest seems to have been banned as URDS, because Indian banking law doesn’t permit individuals to deal in money i.e. borrow and lend money, lending money from out of own capital is allowed. Author makes it clear that deposits shall not be confused with capital infused in business. In any case, personal loans or funds taken by individuals from relatives are not deposits at all and are not banned, noting that they are taken for personal end use purpose and not for business purpose.

CA. Sanjay Joshi



How to plan TDS on income from India

E governance is helping India climb upper ranks in global ranking for ease of doing business. One of the biggest trouble to foreign investors who invested in India where higher rates of withholding taxes on Indian income. There was a manual procedure and law to get the appropriate TDS Rate certificate and comply with TDS (Withholding taxes)  provisions, however, practically due to bureaucratic culture it was virtually difficult or extremely time consuming to get such low rate TDS certificates from Indian Tax Authorities. However, the time has gone, in the era of E governance.

CBDT has made e procedures for seeking Low or NIL Rate TDS certificate vide Notification No G.S.R. 1068(E). w.e.f. 25/10/2018. The form can be downloaded from Form13

Application for Lower Rate or NIL Rate of TDS (withholding taxes) can be made u/s 197 by recipient of income of following category

Section 192 – Salary income – employee

Section 193 – Interest on securities – investor

Section 194 – Dividends – share holder

Section 194A – Interest other than interest on securities – investor

Section 194C – Contractors income – contractor

Section 194D – Insurance commission – insurance agent

Section 194G – Commission/remuneration/prize on lottery tickets – broker

Section 194H – Commission or brokerage – broker

Section 194-I – Rent – landlord

Section 194J – Fee for Professional or technical services – professionals or consultants

Section 194LA – Compensation on acquisition of immovable property – property buyer

Section 194LBB – Income in respect of units of investment fund – investor

Section 194LBC – Income in respect of investment in securitization trust – investor

Section 195 – Income of non residents – payee to non residents

Who can make the application – Eligibility for making application ?

Any person who is receiving the income (assessee) Application can be made if income of person attracts TDS and income of recipient justifies non-deduction or lower deduction of income tax.

What is the Timeline for making application?

No specific deadline However, as TDS is made on income of on-going financial year it is advisable to make an application at the beginning of financial year in case of regular income throughout the financial year and as and when the need arises in case of one-off incomes. In other-words, in case of one of income transactions, before the transaction actually takes place, one can plan for the lower or nil rate application, to streamline cash flow impact of the transaction between parties.

What is the Procedure for making application?

  • Application in Form-13 is to be filed with Jurisdictional A.O, either online (on e-filing portal) or manually. Regions of Mumbai, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka have enabled online filing of Form 13.
  • Taxpayers shall file correct and complete details for processing application
  • If A.O is satisfied he would issue of certificate
  • Copy of certificate can be attached to invoice or other document given to deduct, and he can use this to justify lower or NIL tax deduction and comply with the TDS obligations.

Documents to be submitted with Form-13

  • Digitally Signed / e-verified Form 13 (or manually if it is so)
  • Copies of return of income along with enclosures and acknowledgment for previous 3 financial years
  • Copies of assessment orders for previous 3 financial years
  • In case of assessee having business or profession income, copies of financial statement along with audit report if any for previous 3 financial years
  • Projected profit and loss account for the current financial year
  • Computation of income statement for previous 3 financial years and estimated computation for the current financial year
  • Copy of PAN card
  • Tax Deduction Account Number of all parties responsible for paying you
  • E-TDS return acknowledgment for previous 2 financial years
  • Estimated income during financial year
  • Any other documents depending on nature of income or expenses being claimed against income like cost of acquisition or improvement
  • Explanations w.r.t. clearance of earlier TDS defaults

Validity of application made under Sec-197

It is issued for particular financial year and stands valid from the date of issue throughout the financial year unless cancelled by the A.O. and or for a specific transaction as the case may be.

Governments believe that taxes shall be paid to them in advance and business or personal transactions can take place afterwards and therefore, author recommends that the opportunity to get lower or nil rate of TDS shall be explored w.r.t. each high value income or property transactions that attracts TDS or withholding tax obligations so that cash flows can be planned by parties and transactions can be optimized.

The text of notification and form are attached.


CA. Sanjay Joshi (Co Author – Sneha Nair)

**Similar provisions exist for TCS u/s 206C(9) and shall be explored.


Quick Summary Guide for Issue of Shares in India to Non Residents

India is world’s third largest growing economy and Indian Share Market is a preferred destination by HNIs from across the world for growth and returns. Indian SME market is also one of the hugh investment opportunities for NRIs across the world. The article aims to simply the procedure for issue of shares to NRIs by Indian Companies which involves looking into RBI & FEMA Regulations, Companies Act 2013 and related rules and formalities.

The quick steps are;

  1. File Advance Reporting Form with RBI within 30 days of receipt of share application money
  2. Deposit the share application money in a separate bank account and do not use it for any other purposes.
  3. Allot/Issue the shares within 60 days from the date of receipt of funds.
  4. Allot the shares in a Board Meeting.
  5. File Form FC-GPR within 30 days from the date of allotment of shares.
  6. File Form PAS-3 within 30 days from the date of allotment of shares.
  7. Issue the Share Certificate within 60 days of allotment of shares.

One shall be ready with above docs to proceed fast;

Copy of Foreign Inward Remittance Certificate (FIRC) – issued by AD Bank
Share Valuation Certificate by a Chartered Accountant or SEBI registered Merchant Banker
Company Secretary Certificate
Board Resolution for share allotment
Copy of KYC
List of Allottees of shares

Detailed procedure is also listed for quick reference and further details can be found on RBI, FEMA or EBIZ or MCA official website. The following steps should be taken care of while investing foreign money as share capital in India:

Step 1 of 7:

The first step is to file an Advance Reporting Form with the RBI within 30 days from the receipt of the share application money. The advance reporting form is available on RBI’s website:

The Form can be filed online on the website itself. The general basic details covered in the form are:

  1. PAN of the Investee Company
  2. Basic Details of the Investee Company (Company issuing the shares)
  3. Basic Details of the Foreign Investor (Person investing the money)
  4. Date of Receipt of Funds
  5. Amount: Amount received in Foreign Currency Currency Type like USD, GBP etc Exchange Rate for Conversion Amount in Indian Rupees
  1. Whether Investment is under Automatic Route or Approval Route: If it is automatic route (pre-approved by govt. for all the users of some sectors), then click on automatic route and proceed OR If it requires an approval from the RBI, then click on approval route and mention the date and reference number of the approval
  1. Details of AD Bank: The name of the Bank in which the money has been received, the branch name also has to be mentioned
  2. Address & Contact Details of the AD Bank
  3. Attachments:
    1. KYC – It will be shared by the Remitter bank as well as the AD Bank Both KYC needs to be attached here
    2. Foreign Inward Remittance Certificate (FIRC): This is a certificate that will be issued by the AD Bank and needs to be attached
  1. Authorized Signature of the Investee Company
  2. Details of AD Bank to whom the form is submitted – The form will be sent to the bank to confirm all the details and once the bank and RBI checks it, then the acknowledgment will be generated for your reference

Step 2 of 7:

Once the capital is remitted by the foreign investor and is received by the Investee Company, as per the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013, the company has to keep the share application money in a separate bank account and cannot utilize the money before the allotment of the shares to the investors. If the Company contravenes the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 the its promoters and directors will be liable for a penalty which may extend to the amount involved or 2 crores rupees, whichever is higher and the company shall also refund all monies to the subscribers within a period of 30 days from the date of penalty along with the interest of 12% p.a.

Step 3 of 7:

The Company has to allot/issue the shares within the time frame given by RBI and MCA accordingly. The time limits are:

  • RBI – The shares must be allotted within 180 days from the date of receipt of funds
  • MCA – The shares must be allotted within 60 days from the date of receipt of funds

So, in a nutshell, the time limit to issue/allot the shares comes down to 60 days as per the MCA.

Step 4 of 7:

Conduct a Board Meeting with the Board of Directors to allot the shares.

Step 5 of 7:

A report in Form FCGPR (Foreign Currency – General Purchase Register): This form needs to be filed with the RBI within 30 days from the date of allotment of shares. The Form can be filed online on RBI’s website:

The details covered in the form are:

  1. PAN of the Investee Company
  2. Date of issue of shares
  3. Basic details of the Investee Company
  4. Description of the main business activity: This basically covers the description and the activities of the business that is given at the time of obtaining the registration from the RBI
  5. Location of the project for which the investment has been made
  6. Percentage(%) of FDI allowed as per FDI Policy
  7. State whether it is allowed under Automatic or Approval Route
  8. Details of Foreign Investor
  9. Type of Security Issues:
    • Whether the nature of the security is Equity, Debentures, Others (Specify)
    • Number
    • Face Value Premium
    • Issue Price/Share
    • Amount of Inflow
  1. Nature and date of Issue
  2. This is further divided into Cash and Non-Cash Transaction
  3. The nature of the issue e. IPO/FPO, preferential allotment/private placement, Rights, ESOP, other(specify)
    • Break up of premium
    • Total Inflow in rupees on account of shares/convertible debentures/others to non-residents
  4. It asks for further 3 options – Remittance through AD, debit to NRE/FCNR/Escrow A/c with bank, Others (Specify)
  5. Date of Advance Reporting to the RBI regarding the above-mentioned transaction
  6. Disclosure of the Fair Value of the shares issues
  • Post issue pattern of shareholding
  • Declaration by the Investee Company (Select tick whichever applicable)
  1. Attachments:
  • Company Secretary Certificate
  • Share Valuation Certificate by Chartered Accountant/ Merchant Banker
  • Board Resolution for share allotment

Step 6 of 7:

When FC-GPR is filed, the next step is to file Form PAS-3 with MCA. This form needs to be filed with the MCA within 30 days from the date of allotment of shares. The Form needs to be downloaded from the MCA website and needs to be filled manually and then upload the form. The Form is available on MCA’s Website:

The details covered in the form are:

  1. CIN of the Company – Once you fill this, click on Pre Fill and the basic details of the company will be automatically filled in the form
  2. Number of Allotment
  3. Date of Allotment
  4. Details of Shares issued
  5. Details of the Consideration Received
  6. Whether an agreement or contract is executed in writing for allotting securities for consideration other than cash
  7. Whether Valuation report of the evaluated person has been obtained
    • Bonus Shares issued
    • Capital structure of the Company after taking into consideration the above allotment shares
    • Debt structure of the Company after taking into consideration the above allotment shares
  1. Attachments:
    • List of Allottees of shares
    • Board Resolution
  1. This form also needs to be signed by a practicing CA/CS Chartered Accountant/ Company Secretary

Step 7 of 7:

Once the shares are issued, the Company has to issue the Share Certificate within 60 days from the allotment of shares.

Smriti Shaiv

(Co-Author – CA. Sanjay Joshi)

Compounding of Offence in FEMA

India is trending as 2nd fastest growing economy of the world and type of commercial and personal transactions between Indians and Person of Indian Origins / Overseas Citizen of India / Foreign Citizens are growing drastically and as well as the complexities in such transactions are also evolving faster. On one side government is putting mechanisms to improve India’s ease of doing business rating on the other side it is a serious concern for the government to strengthen – strictly implement the provisions of Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) and relevant procedures relating to commercial or personal cross border transactions of individuals or corporate or businesses.

Unlike FERA, FEMA aims to facilitate cross border transactions and therefore, grants an opportunity cum facility to compound an offence that is committed under FEMA. Compounding for a layman is regularizing a commercial or personal cross border transactions by undoing the legal procedures which were otherwise not done when the transaction actually took place between the involved parties. For a school going children, it is like getting the home work done by informing the teachers that it was so not done in time.

RBI under FEMA has laid down detailed guidance backed by rules i.r.t. the compounding of offence procedures and delagated the powers by classifying compounding for current account transactions like issue of shares, inward / outward remittances and capital account transactions like purchase of properties in India or outside India etc.

The detailed as well as summarized compounding procedures are hosted on RBI website, the links are

Detailed compounding rules and Forms –

FAQs on compounding of offence –

Master – Direction on Compounding of Offences:

The article simply aims to be a quick guide to compounding, as it is always advisable to evaluate cross border transactions and put in place appropriate compliance beforehand, if not, even after the transactions got executed, it should be compounded, as it brings piece of mind, it establishes clear intentions to abide by laws and also adds to the credibility of individuals or business houses.

Compounding of Offence is a voluntary application that can be filed in prescribed form to RBI – ED as authorized along with a Rs. 5,000 demand draft payable in favor of ‘Reserve Bank of India’.

Enclosures: The application shall be enclosed with complete details of transactions along with related evidences – proofs and a declaration – undertaking that the applicant is not facing investigations from Indian DOE, CBI Etc.

Personal Hearing: During scrutiny authorities provide an opportunity to be personally heard, though it is not compulsory to appear. Optionally, one can also send a representative to attend, however, compounding is a voluntary admitted offence, it is preferred to attend personal hearing in person along with representatives.

Time: Compounding applications are to be disposed off within 180 days and an order for compounding fees is to be honored (i.e. fees shall be paid) within 15 days. If not paid, the applicant shall be treated as defaulter who never filed any compounding application and is subject to penal actions. Any offence compounded once can be again compounded if the same is not repeated within a period of three years of it’s first compounding and is treated as a fresh offence for compounding.

Disclosure: RBI has also started hosting the compounded offences and related orders at

Cost of Compounding: Technically compounding fees can be as high as 300% of the transactions involved, however, as per the detailed guidance provided by RBI and as per the historical track record, the cost of compounding hardly ranges to 5-10% max for the transaction involved added by consultant fees. Commercially, it always make sense to compound an offence, instead of waiting for an RBI or government action, which can also result into imprisonment of authorized signatories.

Contraventions relating to any transaction where proper approvals or permission from the Government or statutory authority concerned, as the case may be, have not been obtained, such contraventions would not be compounded unless the required approvals are obtained from the authorities concerned.

It is of at-most importance to first evaluate the transactions, related compliance and the status thereof as well as it implications before proceeding for the compounding application.  Noting that government and RBI has powers to even cease movable or immovable properties and impose severe penalties that may value up-to 300% of the value of the properties or transactions involved, one shall always consider compounding as means to secure piece of mind and clear KYC for India operations.

CA. Sanjay Joshi


Indian Branch of a Foreign Co



To open a Branch Office of a Foreign Co. in India, one shall comply with Foreign exchange management act (FEMA) and compliances under the Companies Act, 2013.

The non-resident entity applying for a BO in India should have a financially sound track record – a profit making track record during the immediately preceding five financial years in the home country and net worth of not less than USD 100,000 or its equivalent. Net Worth means total of paid-up capital and free reserves, less intangible assets as per the latest Audited Balance Sheet or Account Statement certified by a CPA.

Procedure – Documents required for setting up a Branch Office:

  1. File a Permission to RBI in Form FNC-1. to Chief General Manager, Exchange Control Department, RBI central office, Mumbai. Documents to be submitted with FORM FNC-1 are mentioned below.We have filed up a draft form and a copy is attached.
  2. Following documents should be attested from home country (notary + Apostile) (Where the Company means Atul Inc.)
    • Name of Company with Certificate of Incorporation in home country,
    • Latest audited balance sheet – financials,
    • Brief description of activities of Company – company profile
    • Value of Import/Export to India by the Company during last three years (NIL)
    • Detail of existing arrangements in India, if any; (NIL)
    • Name and address of banker of the Company in the home country;
    • Certified Copies of Memorandum and Articles of Association
    • List of directors and secretary of the Company i.e. name, address, designation, date of appointment etc;
    • Registered office address of the Company including telephone no. and email id;
    • The name and address person resident in India authorized to accept on behalf of the company service of process and any notices or other documents required to be served on the company;
    • Full address of the office of the company in India which is deemed to be its principal place of business in India including telephone no. and email id;
    • Particulars of opening and closing of a place of business in India on earlier occasion or occasions; (NIL)
    • Detail of other places of business in India, if any; (NIL)
    • List of shareholders containing name of shareholder, address, number of shares and value of shares;
    • DSC of authorized representative of foreign company or that of directors;
    • Certified copy of PAN of authorized representative of foreign company or DIN if available;
    • Particulars of subsidiary, holding or associate companies of the foreign company in India (NIL)
    • Other documents required:The ROC appointed in state where the foreign co desires to establish its branch office, can demand all those documents which are mentioned in other documents below (Except Digital signatures of directors).
  3. Passport:For Foreign Nationals, Passport is a mandatorily as identity proof
  4. Address Proof:In addition to the Notarized or Apostilled Passport copy, the proposed Director must submit an address proof which is also notarized or apostil led. i.e. Driving License / Residence Card / Bank Statement / Government issued form of identity containing address.
  5. Residential Proof: In addition to the address proof, a residential proof must be submitted during the incorporation of the Company to validate the current address of the Director. Government issued form of identity containing address / Bank Statement / Electricity Bill / Telephone Bill / Mobile Bill
  6. Registered Office Proof: The registered document of the title of the premises of the registered office in the name of the company;


The notarized copy of lease / rent agreement in the name of the company along with a copy of rent paid receipt not older than one month and The authorization from the Landlord (Name mentioned in the Electricity Bill or Gas Bill or Water Bill or Property Tax Receipt or Sale Deed) to use the premises by the company as its registered office. This is usually referred to as NOC from Landlord;


Proof of evidenceof any utility services like telephone, gas,electricity, etc. depicting   the address of the premises in the name of the owner or document, which is not older than two months.

  1. Shareholder:The identity and address proof as detailed in the article must be submitted for all the shareholders of the Company (i.e., subscribers to the Memorandum of Association (MOA) and Articles of Association (AOA).

Time: It takes 2 to 4 weeks to get the approval from RBI

Annual Activity Certificate (AAC):The Annual Activity Certificate (AAC) as at the end of March 31 each year along with the required documents needs to be submitted by the following: Audited Balance Sheet on or before September 30THof that year.

The BO needs to submit the AAC to the designated AD Category -I bank as well as Director General of Income Tax (International Taxation), New Delhi whereas the PO needs to submit the AAC only to the designated AD Category -I bank.

Cost & Benefits:

Incorporation grants a separate legal status from owners and has tax as well as commercial advantages. The cost of formation depends on the size of capital being invested in the Indian operations, ranging from 1-5%, which can be minimized by investing only minimum amounts towards capital and balance can be given to Indian Operations as Loan under the approved routes as per FEMA.

The authors have made an attempt to make a broad checklist w.r.t. start up by a Foreign Co in India.

CA. Sanjay Joshi

(Co Author – Krishna Dvivedi)